The personal website of Nick Rigby, a web developer based in Baltimore MD.

Deploying Magento 2 with Composer and Envoyer

Magento 2 offers significant improvements over Magento 1 in many areas, with one particular highlight being the ability to manage your code with composer. If you're not familiar with composer, it's a dependency manager for PHP, meaning all of your code dependencies can be defined in a single JSON file, which results in a much lighter footprint when it comes to version control.

The caveat is that deploying sites managed with composer requires a little more configuration on the code deployment side, since we need to resolve the composer dependencies at deploy time (unless you're versioning the vendor folder, which you really shouldn't).

Being a huge fan of Laravel, I found Envoyer, a zero downtime deployment tool for PHP applications. Since Magento 2 is a PHP-based application — and I'm really into composer — I decided to give it a go.

Zero downtime deployments with Envoyer

So firstly, a quick overview of how Envoyer handles zero downtime deployments. On the face of it, it's actually quite simple — symlinks. Each time you deploy code with Envoyer, it creates a new folder on the server in a "releases" folder. The name of the folder is timestamped with the time of the deployment to keep it unique e.g. releases/20170128235240. Once a deployment is successful, Envoyer creates a "current" folder symlink to that newly created releases folder.

In order for everything to work, you'll need to set the document root on your server to point to this current folder. For security reasons, Magento also recommends pointing your document root to the pub folder, so your document root should be current/pub.

Note: If you're using cPanel (like me), cPanel doesn't like the document root to be changed. To get around this I simply created a .htaccess file at the server root, to rewrite the base URL as follows:

RewriteEngine on
RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} ^$ [NC,OR]
RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} ^$
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} !current/pub/
RewriteRule (.*) /current/pub/ $1 [L]

GIT Repository

In order to use Envoyer, your code must first be versioned with GIT, with a remote repository through Bitbucket, GitHub or GitLab. I happen to be using BitBucket, but it really doesn't matter since Envoyer gives you an easy interface to connect any one of them.

Server Access

Envoyer pulls code directly from your connected repository onto your server, so you'll need to grant server access via a SSH key. My site is hosted with the fine folks at Crucial Hosting (which uses cPanel), so creating SSH access was a breeze. Once you have server access set up, Envoyer gives you the green light (literally!) in their interface so you know that everything is good to go.

Deployment Hooks

This is where the magic happens! Envoyer gives you the ability to run deployment hooks before and after various stages of the deployment process, which are:

  1. Clone New Release
  2. Install Composer dependencies
  3. Activate New Release
  4. Purge Old Releases

1. Clone New Release

Each time you deploy code, Envoyer clones the code repository into a new folder on your server, keeping your current production code in tact.

2. Install Composer dependencies

This part is fairly explanatory. Envoyer automatically looks for your composer.json file, and runs composer install. For your first ever deploy this can take a few minutes — since Magento 2 has a lot of dependencies — but subsequent deployments will pull dependencies from cache, meaning they resolve in 10-20 seconds (depending on your server).

3. Activate New Release

Activating a new release means the current codebase symlink is updated to point at the new release directory.

4. Purge Old Releases

Envoyer keeps a copy of the last five or so releases, so this part just cleans up some of the older releases by removing them.

Configuring Deployments hooks for Magento 2

Alright, so now we know what Envoyer can do, it's time to create specific deployment hooks for Magento 2. Here's the hooks I have:

1. Install Composer Dependencies (Before)

Envoyer will skip composer dependencies if a vendor directory already exists, or if the composer.json file is missing. In Magento 2, the vendor folder does exist, and is under version control since it contains a .htaccess file. In order for composer to run, we need to temporarily rename the vendor folder:

cd {{release}}
mv vendor vendor_original

Note: the {{release}} placeholder on line 1. This is a smart variable in Envoyer that gives the path to the current release that is being deployed. Pretty sweet!

2. Install Composer Dependencies (After)

Little bit of cleanup to do here: Move the .htaccess folder from vendor_original into the newly created vendor folder:

cd {{release}}
cp vendor_original/.htaccess vendor/
rm -R vendor_original

3. Activate New Release (Before)

We have a number of things to do here, before we can activate the release.

Add env.php and config.php files

These files live in the app/etc folder of Magento 2, and contain environment specific code. The env.php file includes your encryption key, backend URL and database credentials, whereas config.php file contains module information. These files shouldn't be versioned, since they are specific to an environment, so I created a shared folder on the server, and uploaded the production files so they could be copied on deployment.

cp {{project}}/shared/app/etc/env.php {{release}}/app/etc/env.php
cp {{project}}/shared/app/etc/config.php {{release}}/app/etc/config.php

Note: The {{project}} placeholder gives the path to your project root, which is configured within Envoyer.

Magento setup

This is the most complicated step, and the step that will most likely take the longest in the deployment.

cd {{release}}
php bin/magento setup:static-content:deploy en_US en_GB
php bin/magento setup:di:compile
php bin/magento maintenance:enable
php bin/magento setup:upgrade --keep-generated
php bin/magento maintenance:disable
  • Line 1: Nothing new here, we simply move into the folder for the code that is being deployed.
  • Line 2: Using the Magento CLI , we generate all of the static content, which includes compilation of LESS files etc. Note: You'll see that I am specifying two languages: en_US and en_GB. If you're using different languages, be sure to add theme here.
  • Line 3: Again, using the Magento CLI, we setup and compile all Dependency Injections.
  • Line 4: Enable Maintenance mode. Whaaaaaaaaat!? I thought you said this was zero downtime? Okay, it really should be, but it is important to do this, and here's why. When you run the setup:upgrade command on line 5, Magento is going to update the setup_module table in the database. Since this deployment has not been activated yet, we have a moment where we could have a potential mismatch between the code and what is in this table, which could cause an error. Essentially, this step just gives us an extra safety net.
  • Line 5: Run the upgrade script to update any module schemas in the database.
  • Line 6: Disable maintenance mode.

3. Activate New Release (After)

Our deployed code should now be live! One last step — clearing the Magento cache.

cd {{release}}
php bin/magento cache:flush

Linked folders

Almost there, but there's one (very important!) final step. Since we are deploying and resolving our dependencies on each deployment, what happens to user generated files (think product images), and sessions (if you're storing them in the file system)? It's a great question, and fortunately Envoyer has a solution — linked folders!

A linked folder allows you to easily create a symlink from a folder in your release to more permanent files on your server. Within the Envoyer interface, linked folders are managed through the "Deployment Hooks" tab, by clicking on the "Manage Linked Folders" button. In my case, I store sessions in the file system so I created two linked folders.

Media Catalog Folder

Prior to deployments with Envoyer, I created a shared folder on the server and moved the entire catalog folder to it. On each deployment a symlink is then created from the catalog folder to the shared folder.

From: pub/media/catalog to: shared/pub/media/catalog


Sessions are also symlinked in the same way, using the shared folder. Note: If you are using the database for sessions, you can ignore this step.

From: var/session to: shared/var/session

Lift off!

If everything goes to plan, your code will be pushed to the server, all deployment hooks will run, and a symlink will be created from the "current" folder on your server to this release. If anything fails during the deployment, the whole deployment will fail, and your currently deployed code will remain in tact.

Alright, that's enough from me. Enjoy!